Home Deliberation Revamp of New Colonial Era Laws

Revamp of New Colonial Era Laws

The article provides a thorough and professional analysis, critically examining the implications of the new criminal law bills. It raises crucial questions about the balance between citizen rights and effective law enforcement, encouraging meticulous consideration of the proposed changes before their implementation. The bill, in some aspects, seems like old wine in a new bottle, highlighting the importance of genuine innovation in legal approaches to address evolving challenges.



This week three bills overhauling the current Indian Criminal laws were passed by both houses of the Parliament in the 2023 winter session. On the 25th of December, the President of India gave the assent to these bills, namely the  Bhartiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (“BNS”), Bhartiya Sakhshya (Second) Bill,2023 (“BSB”), and Bhartiya Nagrik Suraksha (Second)Sanhita,2023 (“BNSS”). These Bills were introduced to change the laws which were implemented by the Britishers before the independence of the country.  India’s Home Minister who introduced these bills in the parliament said that these laws would remove the slavery touch to the Britishers. The three foundational laws of the country i.e. Indian Penal Code 1860, Indian Evidence Act 1872, Criminal Procedure Code 1973 will be replaced by these Bills.

Timeline of the Bill

The timeline of the new bills traces back to March 2020 when the government established the Constitution of Criminal Law Reforms Committee, chaired by Prof. Dr. Ranbir Singh, the Vice-Chancellor of NLU Delhi. This committee was tasked with recommending principled, effective, and efficient reforms aimed at ensuring the safety and security of individuals, communities, and the nation. The guiding principles prioritized constitutional values, emphasizing justice, dignity, and the inherent worth of every individual.

After two years of deliberation, in 2022, the committee submitted a comprehensive report that synthesized the insights and opinions gathered from legal experts, scholars, and stakeholders. This report served as the foundation for the subsequent legislative developments.

On August 11, 2023, the Home Minister introduced three groundbreaking bills, namely the Bhartiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (“BNS”), Bhartiya Sakhshya (Second) Bill, 2023 (“BSB”), and Bhartiya Nagrik Suraksha (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (“BNSS”). Notably, these bills marked the repeal of the archaic Indian Penal Code 1860, Criminal Procedure Code 1898, and Indian Evidence Act 1872, which were originally enacted by the British and passed by the British Parliament.

Subsequently, the bills underwent a meticulous review by the Standing Committee to scrutinize the clauses. On December 20th and 21st, 2023, the bills successfully passed both houses of Parliament, signifying a crucial legislative milestone. Finally, on December 25th, 2023, the President of India accorded his assent to these bills, cementing their transformation into law and heralding a new era in India’s criminal justice system.

Why the need for the Reform of Indian Criminal Laws?

The imperative for the reform of Indian criminal laws stems from a multiplicity of reasons that collectively address longstanding challenges in the legal system. First and foremost is the burden of a colonial legacy, embodied in laws such as the Indian Penal Code 1860 and the Indian Evidence Act 1872, which fail to resonate with the socio-cultural context of contemporary India. These statutes, laden with vestiges of British rule, perpetuate a sense of legal disconnection and inadequacy. Additionally, the current justice delivery system is plagued by inefficiencies, resulting in prolonged and often ineffective legal proceedings. The persistently high pendency of cases has created a backlog, delaying justice and eroding public trust in the legal system. 

Moreover, the alarming number of undertrials languishing in jails, often without a speedy resolution to their cases, underscores the urgent need for reform. The proposed legislation, namely the Bhartiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (“BNS”), Bhartiya Sakhshya (Second) Bill, 2023 (“BSB”), and Bhartiya Nagrik Suraksha (Second) Sanhita, 2023 (“BNSS”), aims to streamline and expedite legal processes, ensuring a more accessible and responsive justice system. Addressing longstanding police issues is also integral to this reform, aiming to enhance accountability, transparency, and professionalism within law enforcement agencies.  

The current legal framework often falls short of effectively grappling with emerging challenges, such as cybercrime and offenses related to technology, which have become increasingly prevalent in the digital age. As technology advances, the law must adapt to adequately address and prosecute new forms of criminal activities. Furthermore, issues related to the protection of vulnerable populations, such as women, children, and marginalized communities, require a more nuanced and proactive legal approach. The proposed reforms aim to incorporate provisions that not only enhance the legal response to contemporary crime but also foster a more inclusive and compassionate legal system. By integrating these Bills seek to establish a legal framework that is not only relevant but also anticipatory of the diverse and complex challenges faced by the Indian society today. Overall, these reforms are indispensable for building a legal framework that aligns with the principles of justice, fairness, and efficiency in the contemporary Indian context.

Comprehensive Review of India’s New Criminal Law Bills

The recent criminal law bills in India herald a promising era of legal reform, intending to enhance accessibility, fairness, and efficiency within the criminal justice system. This overview meticulously explores the positive dimensions embedded within the bills and scrutinizes potential concerns, offering insights into the delicate equilibrium between citizens’ rights and the efficacy of legal proceedings.

Key Positive Aspects within the Bills:

  • Zero FIR Accessibility:

Empowering citizens with the ability to file a zero FIR at any police station promotes inclusivity and facilitates prompt legal action. This provision aligns with the principles of accessibility and ensures that individuals can initiate proceedings without jurisdictional constraints.

While commendable, the effectiveness of this provision depends on awareness and implementation, and challenges may arise in ensuring consistent adherence across diverse police stations.

  • Timely Police Investigations:

The stipulation of completing police investigations within 180 days is a commendable effort to enhance the efficiency of the criminal justice system. This can prevent unnecessary delays and contribute to a more streamlined investigative process.

Achieving this timeline may pose challenges, especially in complex cases, and the quality of investigations must not be compromised for the sake of expediency.

  • Swift Judicial Processes:

The introduction of structured timelines for framing charges and delivering verdicts is a significant step toward expediting the judicial process. This can contribute to reducing case backlog and ensuring a more efficient legal system.

Striking a balance between speed and thoroughness in the judicial process is crucial, and potential pressure to adhere strictly to timelines may impact the quality of justice delivered.

  • Automatic Bail for Undertrials:

Granting undertrials automatic bail after serving half of their sentence addresses concerns related to prolonged pretrial detention, promoting fairness and human rights principles.

 The automatic bail provision should be accompanied by safeguards to prevent potential misuse and to account for variations in the nature of offenses.

  • Witness Protection Scheme:

The establishment of a witness protection scheme is a crucial measure to address the vulnerability of witnesses, fostering a safer environment for those providing essential testimony.

Effective implementation and sustained commitment to witness protection are essential for the success of this scheme, considering the potential challenges in ensuring security.

  • Home Testimony for Rape Victims:

Allowing rape victims to provide testimony at home is a progressive step towards recognizing the sensitivity of such cases and prioritizing the well-being of survivors.

Ensuring the voluntary nature of this option and providing adequate support mechanisms for victims is essential to prevent any unintended negative consequences.

  • Transparency in Police Searches:

The mandatory video recording of police searches enhances transparency and accountability, potentially reducing instances of misconduct during law enforcement operations.

Adequate training, oversight, and adherence to recording protocols are imperative to realize the full benefits of this provision. Challenges may arise in ensuring consistent implementation across diverse situations.

What is Worrying?

  • Extended Police Custody Powers:

The extension of police custody powers, allowing authorities to seek up to 15 days of custody within 60 to 90 days of arrest, raises significant concerns about individual rights and potential misuse. While the intention may be to facilitate thorough investigations, the deviation from current practices brings forth the risk of prolonged custody without sufficient checks and balances. This has the potential to infringe upon the principle of ‘innocent until proven guilty’ and may lead to situations where individuals are held in custody for extended periods before formal charges are filed. Striking a balance between effective investigations and protecting individual liberties is crucial to avoid any abuse of this expanded authority.

  • Trial Proceedings and Convictions:

The provision allowing the court to proceed with a trial if the accused fails to appear for 90 days introduces complexities regarding the fairness of legal proceedings. While ensuring the continuity of trials is essential, conducting proceedings in the absence of the accused raises questions about the adequacy of defense and the potential for convictions in absentia. This departure from the traditional legal process challenges the notion of a fair trial, demanding careful consideration to prevent any compromise on the accused’s right to present a defense.

  • Seizure of Digital Devices:

While the bills empower agencies to seize digital devices during investigations, concerns emerge regarding the potential infringement on the Right to Privacy. This is particularly pronounced when personal devices, containing sensitive information, are subjected to unwarranted scrutiny. Striking a balance between the need for evidence in criminal investigations and protecting individual privacy is crucial. Clear guidelines and oversight mechanisms must be in place to prevent arbitrary seizures and ensure that digital searches are conducted with respect for constitutional rights.

  • Property Attachment by Police:

Granting the police the authority to attach property deemed as proceeds of crime raises concerns about arbitrary asset seizures based on suspicion, especially in the absence of robust provisions for default. This provision necessitates careful scrutiny to prevent misuse and to safeguard individuals from unwarranted confiscation of their assets. The legal framework must provide clear criteria and due process to ensure that property attachment is based on concrete evidence and aligns with principles of fairness and justice.

  • Adultery and Gay Sex Not Criminalized:

Adultery, gay sex, and notably, bestiality are not criminalized, aligning with past Supreme Court rulings. This reflects a progressive stance in line with contemporary principles of individual autonomy and equality. The decision not to criminalize these acts prompts a critical examination of the consistency of the legal framework with societal values. While the alignment with contemporary principles is evident, questions persist about whether the legal system adequately reflects the diverse values within society and whether there is a need for ongoing dialogue to address potential discrepancies between legal and societal norms. The inclusion of bestiality in this context adds an additional layer to the discourse, emphasizing the importance of evaluating legal frameworks to ensure they reflect evolving societal norms while considering ethical and moral implications.

Critical Analysis:

The article provides a nuanced analysis of the new criminal law bills in India, offering a balanced examination of both positive and concerning aspects. It effectively outlines the positive features, such as measures to enhance accessibility, fairness, and efficiency in the criminal justice system, including the empowerment of citizens to file zero FIRs, timely completion of police investigations, and the introduction of transparent judicial processes. The positive elements, including the emphasis on victim support and transparency in law enforcement operations, are articulated clearly. However, the article sheds light on the potential drawbacks and challenges associated with the proposed legislation. Concerns are raised about extended police custody powers, trial proceedings in the absence of the accused, and the potential infringement on the right to privacy through the seizure of digital devices. The article also underscores the omission of criminalizing adultery or gay sex, aligning with past Supreme Court rulings, and raising questions about the consistency of the legal framework with societal values. Moreover, the article delves into the gender-centric nature of the proposed Bhartiya Nyaya (Second) Sanhita, 2023, particularly in addressing sexual offenses. The explicit gendering of rape laws and the omission of high-demanding legal aspects like Marital Rape draw attention. The critical perspective underscores concerns about potential gender bias within the legal framework, prompting a re-evaluation of the proposed changes.

In conclusion, the article provides a thorough and professional analysis, critically examining the implications of the new criminal law bills. It raises crucial questions about the balance between citizen rights and effective law enforcement, encouraging meticulous consideration of the proposed changes before their implementation. The bill, in some aspects, seems like old wine in a new bottle, highlighting the importance of genuine innovation in legal approaches to address evolving challenges.